Cambridge Train the Trainer

After reading Rodrigo Sigoli’s article about the Cambridge Train the Trainer, I decided it would be suitable to have my first post of the year about my experience taking the course. I haven’t written here in ages and hopefully this will be a reminder to use this blog more often. If you are expecting this to be a more technical evaluation, this won’t be it. This will be purely based on my experiences with a quick back story.
The first time I got involved with teacher training was somewhere back in 2006. It was at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, more specifically at CLAC, a project in which undergrads received scholarships to teach primarily other undergrads and people from the local community. We always had new trainee teachers and I was invited to give some training sessions.


Like many other trainers, I started because I was a good teacher, and training people to do things the way I did seemed logical. However, there is nothing logical about that. Just like speaking a language does not qualify you to be a teacher, being a good teacher does not make you a trainer.


Since I understood that I could not just say I was a trainer, I have looked for credentials that would allow me to work with training without feeling I was being unethical. If you ask me what to do in order to responsibly work as a teacher trainer, my answer will be vague: it depends.


ELT is a rather informal industry and there are teachers, very good ones, who come from different professions. While I do believe that ideally one should start with a BA in languages, or whatever degree that would teach you about language, we know the world is far from ideal and that’s okay. Knowledge does not have to come exclusively from one single source, and not pursuing a more traditional path does not make one less of a teacher. Having said that, when our professional has such loose requirements, the same goes for every other ELT context, training included.


After a BA in Languages, a postgraduate degree in Education, language and teaching certificates and diplomas, I got to a place in my life that I rationally did not feel like a fraud whenever the words ‘teacher trainer’ were associated with me in my teaching context. Then last year I heard about the possibility of a Cambridge teaching qualification that was new in Brazil: Train the Trainer.


On the Cambridge sitethere isn’t much information about it. It is a course for experienced teachers and it is at the Proficient to Expert Stages on the Cambridge English Teaching Framework. According to the info provided by Cambridge, the course will help you to design and deliver training sessions and courses; observe teachers and give feedback, and understand how to further develop as a trainer. It sounds really exciting and, let’s be honest, being able to say that you are a Cambridge certified trainer is pretty cool. Another thing that called my attention was the fact that the course enables you to be a CELT-S and CELT-P trainer. In my case, I would not need the Train the Trainer to be able to deliver those courses, but this called my attention anyway.


There aren’t so many opportunities to take training courses that are for trainers. Overall, my experience was very positive. I learned a lot about delivering training sessions and I believe this has had a very positive impact on the sessions that I have delivered since then. We also learned about feedback, even though there wasn’t anything really new to me there. I had a wonderful group of trainers taking the course with me and I think that made all the difference, alongside with Henrique Moura, who is, in my opinion, one of the best trainers in Brazil. My classmates were either DELTA qualified or experienced people who already work with teacher training. The discussions were very rich and with remarkable insights.


Would I recommend the Train the Trainer course then? Yes, but we need to talk about the classmates again. According to the overview of  Train the Trainer, the minimum entry requirement is to be a CEFR B2 language user or above. The course does not even require an initial teaching certificate, such as the CELTA. Depending on the center, they may screen candidates more or less carefully, but this doesn’t seem to be encouraged, at least not based on the information on Cambridge website. Basically, anyone can take this course and they will be Cambridge certified trainers.


I am not going to digress into the reasons why Cambridge has decided being a B2 speaker is enough for this course, but the implications seem quite obvious. This certificate will not make much difference in your cv if your employer knows what the course is like. On the other hand, what you learn in this course may help you tremendously if you are a trainer or would like to become one.


Have you ever taken this course? I’d love to know more about your experience.

Professional development : who pays the bill?

If you are reading this, you are a teacher that seeks professional development. This text is an example of free professional development; so are websites like this one, twitter and Facebook groups such as BrELT. There is also another type of professional development we all know well: the industry of language and teaching certifications.

Going back to the title of this text, I will say that I do not know. I unapologetically admit that I cannot answer the question I asked. What I can and will try to start here is a discussion about the subject and maybe together we will come to some conclusions.

We teachers often complain that institutions do not invest in our professional development. I must say that it is rare to find schools that will cover the costs of language and teaching certifications, for instance. To be honest, during my teaching career I have come across that just once and even at that school there was some bureaucracy involved in the deciding who would be granted a scholarship. Schools that offer certificate and diploma courses tend to give their teachers a discount. Given the prices, discounts of course help, but are not normally appealing. Do I think schools could help their teachers out more? Yes.

On the other hand, something that most teachers seem to ignore is that it is very difficult to be a business owner in Brazil, where I am based, and in other parts of the world as well. We are the country of taxes, and business aim at, well, profit. Companies often do not volunteer to pay for your professional development for a reason that might not have occurred to you: they cannot afford it. While I understand the funding of employees’ professional development is not always financially possible, it is not my intention to play devil’s advocate here.

As a company, there is a bare minimum that employees expect from you. Perhaps all your company can offer is that 5% discount, but it is their duty to tell you that and explain why. Do not assume teachers understand that your business needs to be sustainable. Have conversations, negotiate with them, show interest. Being willing to hear their wishes means a lot.

Reality is that bosses and schools come and go. If you work at a place that demonstrates no interest in your development, a place where you feel there are no chances of growing professionally, it is your responsibility to pursue new horizons. It is naive to think that one teacher is going to make a whole institution review their policies and change them. If you have reached a professional plateau, the time to get out of your comfort zone and look for new opportunities is now.

Maybe it is possible (and feasible) to get the best of both worlds. I would love to hear from both teachers and institutions.

This article was originally pushed here.

A lesson on connected speech – Intermediate/B1 onwards

It’s been a long time since I last posted. I have been very busy, but I will try to post here more often. I feel happy and energised, and I’m convinced this will be a great year for us all.


The lesson

When it comes to teaching English, I think features of connected speech tend to be overlooked. That is why I wanted to start this series of posts with a lesson focusing on a feature that might be hard or tricky to some learners. Elision is a natural feature that happens in many languages. For instance, according to Swan & Smith (2001), Spanish speakers tend to omit the first or the last consonants from clusters. In Brazilian Portuguese, it is common to elide the final /r/ in verbs in the infinitive, such as amar. How do we help learners deal with elision then? Well, I think the first step is to show them it exists, and how it happens in English. As in many cases, awareness is key.

This lesson deals with elision in the context of relationships. I chose to work with the song New Rules (by Dua Lipa, 2017) not only because it contains samples of elision, but also because this song empowers women to take control and not accept just anything when it comes to relationships with men. In that regard, the song is relevant both in terms of teaching material and practical advice.

Do let me know what you think about this post, the content and whether you decided to adapt these ideas. I find the video very interesting too, so if you have ideas about how to incorporate it, I’d love to know. Happy teaching!

Stage & Learning Outcomes Procedures
(to set the context and engage students in the topic)
Teacher asks students if relationships these days are how they used to be. In pairs, Students discuss for two minutes.


Teacher gets feedback on the differences, similarities.

Pre-listening (to activate schemata on relationship problems, pre-teach vocabulary) Teacher gives students  worksheet 1 and they need to figure out if the sentences refer to old rules of relationship or new rules.


Teacher checks answers and meanings.

(to listen for the gist)
 Teacher tells students they are going to listen to a song. Students should decide if the song is about new rules or old rules. Teacher highlights students will listen for the general idea and it is not necessary to understand every word.


Students listen to the song.


Teacher gets feedback.

Description and analysis
(to provide oral and written illustrations of how elision is produced and occurs within spoken discourse)
Teacher says students are going to listen to the song again, but the parts of the lyrics in italics are written similarly to the way people speak. Students need to write the correspondent written form. Teacher models the first one.
Teacher gives students worksheet 2.Students listen to the song again.Students check in pairsTeacher gets feedback, boards the answers.


Teacher elicits why sounds disappear in some object pronouns and why some are pronounced.

Teacher shows answers and elicits stress. Teacher elicits and shows stressed parts of the sentences:
Don’t let him in.
You have to kick him out again.

I’ve got new rules, I count them.
I’ve gotta tell them to myself.

Listening discrimination (to provide focused listening practice with learner’s ability to correctly discriminate elision) Teacher tells students they will listen to five sentences of people reacting to the song. Students need to indicate if sounds disappear or not. Teacher gives them worksheet 3. Here I encourage you to have some good non-native English speaker teachers record the sentences. You’ll be providing students with models that they are numerically more likely to be exposed to.


Students do the exercise.


Students check in pairs.


Teacher checks answers, plays recording again if necessary.

Restricted practice
(to raise learners consciousness on elision)
Teacher divides the class in Student A and Student B. Teacher tells students they are going to read a dialogue and each student has a role. Teacher hands in worksheet 4. Teacher tells students to pay attention to the colors in the text, as they will indicate which sounds are going to disappear. Teacher highlights students need to try to read in a normal or fast pace, not too slow. Teacher tells students to pay attention whether their partner makes the indicated sounds disappear.


Students do the task. Teacher monitors.


Teacher asks if students noticed if their partners made sounds disappear.

Freer practice
(to offer more structured communication practice to enable the learner to monitor for elision)
Teacher tells students to work individually on their own relationship rules. Students write 5 sentences about how they think relationships should be like. Students complete:
1- Ask him/ her/ them…
2- Tell him/ her/ them…
3- Let him/ her/ them…
4- Kiss him / her/ them when…
5- Help him/ her/ them with…Students write. 
Communicative practice (to practice paying attention to form and content) In trios, students share their relationship rules and justify their sentences.


Students share their ideas in groups.


Teacher gets feedback and gives feedback.

Where have you been?

That’s a question I get a lot. I haven’t posted here in a while and have certainly been less active on Twitter. I’m still pretty active on Facebook, though, especially at BrELT, a network of teachers I love to help moderate.

Since my last post, wonderful things have happened to me professionally, which got me quite busy. I’ve been writing for Richmond and you can check it out here. I got to travel to amazing places in my country and abroad, give workshops, webinars and this is all because at some point I decided to put myself out there and share my voice with the world. I am forever grateful for all the love and support the ELT community gave me from the very first day.

This is just a quick update to tell you that I am here and have no intentions of going anywhere.

I love you all.


We need to talk about Caitlyn – Breaking down a deep-seated cultural taboo

Last June the world met the woman formerly know as Bruce Jenner. A star was born in a white bustier corset.


Caitlyn Jenner
Vanity Fair

Later on, the docu-series I am Cait premiered on E! at the end of July. Journalists and commentators say that we have reached a tipping point due to the recent rise in transgender awareness. While this may be true to some extent in the States, Brazil, the country that I live in, accounts for 51% of trans and gender diverse murders in Central and South America, with 689 reported killings since 2008. It is believed that this number is in fact much higher than official figures show.

After the Diane Sawyer interview Jenner was back to the spotlight. As I watched her interview, I wondered the pain she must have endured all those years. We all have, at some point in our lives, felt uncomfortable with our bodies. Maybe it was our skin, hair or even those love handles that no matter how hard you work out at the gym, never seem to go away. However, hair can be cut, for extra fat there is exercise and if you’re too skinny, dieting can help with that too. For extreme cases of discomfort, there is plastic surgery. How do you cope with looking in the mirror and feeling that the way you look does not match the way you see yourself? On top of that, because it is not just about looks, you feel are not the gender people say you are. Even though I can’t relate to Caitlyn completely because I don’t have problems with the gender that was assigned to me at birth, I can relate, to some extent, to the struggle. And as they say, the struggle is real.

You may be wondering in what ways this is related to English language teaching.

I remember being an English learner and the homework was a composition about marriage. That was it, the word ‘marriage’ at the top of the page and lines to write about, well, marriage. Not very communicative, I know. I decided that I would write about gay marriage and why I thought it should be allowed in Brazil. Needless to say it was illegal back in the day. I felt frustrated when I received my text back with nothing but language feedback. Partly because I’d decided to write about gay marriage because I wanted to provoke, but I also wanted to talk to an adult (in that case, my teacher) about that topic. My experience as a learner helped shape me into the teacher I am today. I often ask myself what I can provide my students with that I wish I’d had when I was a student.

It was natural that Jenner would become a topic in my lessons. She’s a celebrity on the cover of Vanity Fair, a trailblazer for trans issues and the talk of the town. On one of these occasions, at the end of a lesson a student said she was happy we had talked about Caitlyn and that it was something she’d never had the opportunity to talk about in a class. It got me thinking about what we usually talk about in an English class: vacations, health, occupations…

Rinvolucri (1999) talks about an EFLese sub-culture that dictates EFL coursebook content. According to him, EFL topic choices avoid the ‘shadow side of life’, ignore feelings such as rage, jealousy and greed, cater to the riches and middle classes of the Metropolitan World and avoid ideological statements. It is a comfortable world with no room for controversy.

Thornbury (1999) calls attention to the fact that gays and lesbians are invisible in coursebooks. Not much has changed in the past 16 years. I remember an LGBT flag in one of the Framework series I used 10 years ago, don’t know if they’ve kept it in the new editions. I can’t think of the word gay in any of the coursebooks I currently use. While I imagine (and hope) gay issues pop up in ELT materials here and there, I suspect finding a coursebook that deliberately tackles transgender issues would be rather difficult, not to say impossible.

Many may think that our job is to teach language and we shouldn’t be concerned with controversial topics in our classrooms. It is important to highlight that language does not happen in a vacuum outside context. If we use trivial topics such as fashion, entertainment and vacations and somehow manage to engage students, imagine what can be achieved with current issues that arouse interest.

The EFL/ESL classroom is composed of individuals from different backgrounds and identities. It is an objective of language education to develop the learner’s sense of identity in response to the experience of otherness (Council of Europe, 2001). Therefore, we should provide learners with opportunities to broaden their horizons with diversified experiences of otherness.

Although students’ identities sometimes remain hidden (a transgender student who hasn’t transitioned or come out yet, for instance), they play a major role in the learning process. In EFL/ESL classes, students are often asked to share a great deal of personal information in order to make tasks more meaningful. As Menard-Warnick (2005:262) points out, ‘Language learners can only be successful to the extent that it is congruent with the learners’ sense of their gender roles, societal positions, class backgrounds, and ethnic histories.’ How can learning take place if the environment is not accepting enough to even acknowledge the fact that, for some people, there is a mismatch between the gender they were assigned and the gender they feel they are?

If mainstream ELT materials make no reference to transgender people, what can we do, as teachers? We show people exist, that’s the first step. Fortunately there are some transgender spokespeople out there, such as the previously mentioned Cailtyn Jenner, Chaz Bono, Jazz Jennings, Laverne Cox and many others.

The big question is: how can I do that? I don’t feel there is a simple answer. There are many factors that should be taken into consideration. Dealing with sensitive topics is definitely not as easy as showing photos of mountains and beaches and asking students which their preferred location is. While we cannot always foresee areas of conflict, we must come prepared. You can only show what you are comfortable with. It is imperative that we educate ourselves first so we can educate others.

We should be careful not to create situations that would make students pass judgment. Discussing trans issues in class should not be about questioning and debating people’s life choices, but creating a move loving, accepting and safer environment.

I would love to know your take on this. Have you ever dealt with this topic in class? If not, how do you think you could start? Let me know in the comments.


Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for the teaching of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Menard-Warwick, J. (2005). Both a fiction and an existential fact: theorizing identity in second language acquisition and literacy studies. Linguistics and Education, 16, 253–274.

Rinvolucri, M. (1999). The UK, EFLese sub-culture and dialect. Folio. Vol. 5/2 : 12-14

Thornbury, S. (1999). Window-dressing vc. Cross-dressing in the EFL sub-culture. Folio Vol. 5/2: 15-17.

Teaching online with Jack Askew

‘Not everybody can be an entrepreneur’, you probably heard this before way too many times. It’s almost like entrepreneurs are a special, genetically-modified type of race.

Not everybody can be an entrepreneur because not everybody wants to be an entrepreneur (and that’s ok).

If you want to start a business, expand a business or simply supplement your income, today’s interview is for you. I talked to Jack Askew from Teaching ESL Online and I am sure you are going to learn a lot about online teaching.

I’d love to know a bit more about you. Are you somehow involved with online teaching and, if so, how?

Thank for watching!


What to do if you are dismissed

I can’t remember exactly how old I was, 19, maybe 20. I’d been working there for about a year and it was my first registered job, which means that I was a trainee teacher before. This was a place that I really liked to work at. The atmosphere was great, I got along well with my co-workers, my coordinator (to whom I am so grateful for) and even the secretaries.

It was summer, most teachers were on vacation. I was teaching one-to-one and was also responsible for placement tests. My coordinator and I stayed in touch and she supported me from a distance.

One day this student came looking for a one-to-one program. She needed a teacher to help her with the test she was going to take in a few months. As the program would be created from scratch, my coordinator and I agreed that payment should not be the same. I had to talk to the school owner and negotiate with him.

I had a meeting with the school owner and we didn’t come to an agreement. The discussion was civil, he didn’t seem upset. I was not teaching that student. What I didn’t know is that I wasn’t teaching anyone else anymore at that school.

The following day or a few hours later, I can’t recall, the accountant calls me to go to his office and give him some documents because I had been dismissed. I talked to my coordinator on the phone and she advised me to go there and try to talk to the school owner. It was useless. He barely looked at me and said ‘I don’t want to talk to you, teacher’. Yes, he used to address all teachers not by the name, but calling them ‘teachers’.

Some months before the infamous talk with my boss, I had started working at another language school. The pay was better and there were benefits. I was very happy to be working for those two institutions.

It was probably a good thing. If I hadn’t been dismissed, I’d have kept working at the school that paid less and offered no benefits and for one simple reason: because I liked it there.

Rejection hurts.

In today’s episode, I will talk to a teacher who doesn’t even understand why she was fired. You will also see a fun new segment. I hope you have as much fun watching as I had making this episode.

I would love you to help her. Any tips for her new job?


My experience attending TOSCON – The TESL Toronto Spring Conference

Last week I was in Toronto for TOSCON15. I decided that I should attend more conferences this year and this was the perfect one for a number of reasons that I explain later in more detail.

I also gave a talk about one-to-one teaching, the first I give away from home.


In 2013 I had to travel to the USA for business and visiting Canada seemed to be a good idea for a short vacation. I may have been influenced by a friend who had lived in Toronto and by the TV series Being Erica (I was obsessed with that show). My chosen destination was Vancouver, though. Needless to say, I fell in love with the city and the country. There is something about Canada that I don’t think I can translate into words, as cheesy as that may sound. People are so helpful and welcoming. It’s the kind of place where strangers call you a cab if you ask for directions on how to find one. Canadians are the kind of people who will come to you and ask if you need help when you are holding a map, puzzled trying to figure out your way. All this may be ordinary to you, my fellow Canadian who’s reading this, but it isn’t to me and I want you to know that I do not take these acts of kindness for granted and really appreciate them.

Back to 2013, when I came back after a great time in Vancouver I was curious to connect with other teachers from Canada. I searched for teaching associations in Vancouver, but couldn’t find any in the quick search I made on Google. Then I found Tyson Seburn, which is odd, because he’s based in Toronto. I saw his blog on Facebook and noticed two people from my PLN had ‘liked’ the page. Interesting, I thought.

Tyson is the president of TESL Toronto and last year I saw some posts about TOSCON14 and I felt like going. A seed had been planted.

The conference

I was really impressed with the quality of this conference. Having been to many and once involved in the organization of a small conference when I was in university, I can only imagine how hard the TESL Toronto Board had to work to put everything together.

Food is not a reason why people go to conferences, but the gala dinner on day 1 and lunch on day 2 were superb. Many opportunities to network. It was the first time I’ve been to a conference that I didn’t know anyone. The first five minutes are bit uncomfortable, but Canadians are so warm it doesn’t take much to strike up a conversation.

The speakers

I attended some great talks and a workshop. My initial idea was to take some notes to write summaries, but I got quickly involved with the talks and didn’t take detailed notes. Besides, you will be able to see the slides from the presentations you are interest in as they become available. Stay tuned on their Facebook page.

Fortunately, I managed to talk to two great speakers:  Kate Finegan and Russell Mayne. I know the camera can be a little intimidating, thank you so much Kate and Russell for the interviews.

If you are curious about the sessions, you can see the full program here.

I hope you enjoy the interviews and that this post encourages you to go to the conference next year.

How to promote student autonomy

I remember this student I had, Claudia. She was a woman in her early fifties, elementary level, the kind of student who passed with flying colors, except she passed the same level over and over. As strange as it may sound, Claudia always and only took the beginner course. She’d always have an excuse why she had to stop studying and an even better excuse why she should start again from the very beginning. She was a legend at the English Institute I worked at. She did not seem to have any cognitive issues that would affect her learning.

It was the middle of the semester when there was this torrential rain. All students were absent but Claudia. I was ready to (try to) go home, as this would be my last class that day, when Claudia arrived soaking wet. I was not happy to see her.

She was a nice student, don’t get me wrong, but the idea of taking two more hours to get home on a rainy day was definitely not a good one. I was quick to put a smile back on my face to make sure she didn’t notice my dissatisfaction.

It was revision day, so I decided to go over her notes and see what she had problems with. Not that I expected any, after all, she was taking that course for the 100th time. ‘Well, Claudia, you don’t have any questions, so let’s do some exercises that revise units 1-4.’ ‘It’s not necessary, I have the exercises from the teacher from last year.’ I explained to her that the exercises were not the same, as I had prepared them based on the mistakes the group had made in the last quiz.

After 10 minutes, Claudia had finished the exercises and, no surprise, it was all correct. ‘Why are you here?’. There, I said it. I never meant to sound deliberately rude, so I rephrased my question, with nicer words, emphasizing how great she was.

We spent the rest of the lesson talking about her issues. Claudia had always been very insecure and she did not think she was ready to move on to the next level, despite having good exam results and positive feedback from previous teachers. I managed to convince Claudia that, if she had good results, she should take the next course. That’s what she did.

Claudia is one of those students who lack confidence and need the teacher’s attention 100% of the time. During that term, Claudia managed to be a bit more autonomous.

In today’s episode, I share some tips for you to give your students some autonomy and hopefully they will not turn into a Claudia.

Now I am curious to hear from you: have you ever had a student (or students) that were too dependent on you? If so, what did you do?


Teachers and social networks

The other day I got involved in a heated debate on LinkedIn. I was promoting the interview I did with Marek Kiczkowiak and there was this person was way too aggressive. I decided not to reply anymore given the nature of the arguments, but some great people were willing to take a stand against discrimination and decided to take part in the discussion. Nathan Hall even wrote an article about it! Thank you all for your contributions, you have raised the level of that discussion.

Unfortunately, that was not the first (and probably not the last) time there is a backlash against people who want to advocate for equal rights. Recently Nicola Prentis and Russ Mayne gave a talk at this year’s IATEFL called ‘Where are the women in ELT?’. Two speakers, a man and a woman. Can you guess who had to deal with nasty comments?

I wonder why some people don’t filter out inappropriate comments or actions in social settings these days. This has always been a problem, but in today’s world, this can get you fired.

 Social networks are here to stay and they encourage people to live lives online and it may be difficult to know what to share and what to keep private. How much should we share with students, co-workers and bosses?

In today’s episode I give some ideas about how to juggle your personal and virtual life.

I hope you found it entertaining and informative. What about you? How do you manage your online presence? I’d love to know!