‘My students don’t do homework’. We have all heard and said this before. Students say they do not have the time for homework, while teachers keep on assigning. Many teachers end up frustrated because students do not meet their expectations n that matter. Personally, I believe time is usually not the issue. We should try to think of homework more holistically and not just as part of our routine. We should ask ourselves why we assign homework in the first place. Here are some reasons:
- We are expected to. Students, parents, institutions and, why not, us teachers expect homework to be assigned at the end of each lesson. It is a practice that we often take for granted.
- Time constraints. In many scenarios, it is not possible to do everything we want and that students need in class, be it language or skills work, something is left out. Homework is the ‘perfect’ solution.
- Because it helps. Homework is a chance to consolidate and revise content, making sure the learner is in contact with the language. If you teach where English is a foreign language, homework may be the only opportunity to experience English outside the classroom.
- You want students to be autonomous. Homework encourages learners to work independently and explore new and existing resources. It is the time students will go through the materials and pinpoint what they need.
Assigning homework : ‘Page 42, exercises, 2 and 3’
The worst way to assign homework is to only write the pages / exercises on the board. Students will not do homework if they do not understand what they are supposed to do. What may be obvious to us is not necessarily obvious to them. Everyone will be frustrated, students will be insecure and will grow more dependent on their teacher. Homework can also be an excellent way to develop learner autonomy.
We have to be very careful when we assign homework, specially (but not only) with lower levels. That does not mean one has to keep modelling a true or false exercise after students have done it for the hundredth time. Here are some alternatives to assign homework more effectively:
- Model the first items to make sure students understand the task. If possible, model with a student.
- Nominate someone to explain the assignment. You may want to go for the strong students. The idea is not to test them, but to engage and guarantee that the tasks are clear to the group.
- Divide students into groups and assign different exercises for them to explain. This is similar to nominating a student, but especially helpful when you have a longer list or more challenging tasks that will require more time. Learners will have the chance to discuss and check with their peers before explaining to the rest of the group, creating a more comfortable atmosphere.
- Give students options. If you have several tasks that practice the same topic and with the same level of difficulty, tell your students to choose their homework. You may want to give them some direction, though. Indicate the number of exercises you want them to do. For instance, from a list of 15 exercises, they should choose 5.
Why at the end?
It is common practice to assign homework at the very end of the class. It is almost like homework gives a sense of closure, so students can stand up and go home after it has been written on the board. Again, this is what students expect. However, it does not have to be like that. There is no need to always assign homework at the end of the class. It makes perfect sense, for example, to assign homework in the middle of the lesson, after students have practiced the language more freely and you are going to move on to a next topic. It will still be organic, as you are ending a different cycle. Besides, learners will have a clearer idea of the reasons why they are going to be doing that specific piece of homework. If it is not, be sure you tell them.
(Photo taken from: http://on.fb.me/1wRicQ0 by Roseli Serra used under a CC Attribution Non-Commercial license,http://bit.ly/1evKm84)
In spite of what is commonly done, homework correction and warm-up activities are not the same. When homework is corrected, students are, most of the time, reading answers. There is not much cognitive processing going on or personalization, students are not engaged, and therefore it doesn’t work as a warmer. However, it is possible to combine both, killing two birds with one stone. Here are some suggestions of games you can use as warmers when correcting homework:
If you teach kids and teens, this type of correction is more likely to succeed, but some adult groups may enjoy this challenge too. Divide the students into small groups. Put the answer key outside the classroom. While a student stays in the classroom, another student goes outside, memorizes the answers and whispers them to the student who stayed in. Encourage students to take turns. Time the activity, otherwise it may take too long. Show the answer key at the end, if necessary.
Grammar or vocabulary auction
Auction right and wrong homework answers. It is also a chance for students who did not do the homework take part in the correction process.
Hangman and crossword puzzle for vocabulary
These are popular games that have been in the ELT classroom for ages. Nowadays there are many puzzle generators online, such as this one .
There is also room for more traditional ways to correct homework. After all, even the most resourceful teacher can’t come up with a different game every class. If you also want to promote student autonomy, you might want to try these out:
Students check homework among themselves, teacher monitors closely.
Students are given the answer key at the moment homework is assigned or when it is correction time. The teacher should always ask for students’ feedback in order to identify problem areas.
The teacher calls out students’ names to read answers.
The teacher elicits answers from students or asks volunteers to conduct the correction.
Collecting students’ work
Collect students’ homework and give feedback later. Although this means more work to the teacher, it may enable you to discover a common problem area and do some remedial work.
Be consistent. Create a homework routine. Assign homework every class. If homework is occasional, students are likely to forget.
Be realistic. Think of the amount of homework you assign and whether there is proper time to have it done. Perhaps 2 pages of homework will be too much for the next day, but not for the next week. The more you know your students, the better able you will be to determine what works for them.
Be flexible. As much as it is positive to have a homework routine, we need to adapt to the circumstances. If your group of teenagers is going to busy all weekend with their end of terms, you may negotiate the amount of homework or even decide to assign no homework at all.
Depending on the class days, you may find it useful to devote part of a specific day to homework correction (instead of correcting every class), if that means students will have more time to it.
I’d love to hear from you. Do you have a hard time with homework? If so, how do you deal with this? Do you have other tips? Share them in the comments!
Thank you for reading!